(2002 - 2016)
NOTE: Work-in-progress. Please check back as more material is added once permissions have been granted from various institutions.
This section includes related research and ephemera of historical significance that directly informed the making of the project Through Darkness to Light: Photographs Along the Underground Railroad, such as: facsimiles of newspaper ads, society minutes, academic papers, in addition to quotes and accounts from participants in the Underground Railroad. Where available, images from the various collections used to piece together the route are shown. As well as, information that explains specific locations, stops, and/or people all organized according to the documented route. Overarching ephemera is presented at the beginning of this page. Below is where ephemera specific to the route is shown. The epigraphs add Underground Railroad participant's voices to the journey and include well-known figures as well as local people.
The Underground Railroad operated in opposition to the law. The first Fugitive Slave Law was passed in 1793 providing for the return of slaves who had escaped and crossed state boundaries. A second stronger law was passed as part of the Missouri Compromise in 1850.
Frederick Douglass stated that he could “think no better exposure of slavery can be made than is made by the laws of the states in which slavery exists.”
Reason to Leave.
Chorus of a song from abolitionist George W. Clark’s The Liberty Minstrel (1844), 2014
Decision to Leave.
Magnolia Plantation on the Cane River, Louisiana, 2013
The land on which Magnolia Plantation stands was originally acquired by Jean Baptiste LeComte I in 1753. At the height of their prosperity in 1860, the family produced more cotton than anyone else in the Natchitoches Parish. During its prime, it is likely that at least 75 people lived at Magnolia. All of the slave cabins at Magnolia were placed in rows, creating a structured village atmosphere. As with many other plantations in the area, Magnolia’s slave cabins were turned into sharecropper cabins after Emancipation.
On the Run.
North of the Cane River Plantations, Louisiana, 2013
Wading Prior to Blackness.
Grant Parish, Louisiana, 2014
Southern Pine Forest.
Following El Camino Real, LaSalle Parish, Louisiana, 2014
Catching a Breath.
LaSalle Parish, Louisiana, 2014
Black River Crossing.
Continuing along El Camino Real, Catahoula Parish, Louisiana, 2014
Frogmore Plantation, Concordia Parish, Louisiana, 2014
Many slave narratives and first-person accounts of escape reference running away to neighboring plantations. Wallace Turnage went to several neighboring plantations before he was able to finally gain his freedom.
Catahoula Parish, Louisiana, 2014
Outskirts of the Myrtle Grove Plantation, Tensas Parish, Louisiana, 2014
Moonlight Over the Mississippi.
Tensas Parish, Louisiana, 2014
Through the Forest.
Jefferson County, Mississippi, 2014
Church Hill, Mississippi, 2015
Hiding Out Back.
Slave cemetery, Mount Locust Stand and Plantation, Jefferson County, Mississippi, 2014
Claiborne County, Mississippi, 2015
Avoiding the Coyotes.
Hinds County, Mississippi, 2014
Determining True North in the Rain.
Along the southern part of the Old Natchez Trace, Mississippi, 2014
Tracking the Deer.
Skirting the Osburn Stand, Mississippi, 2014
Middle Mississippi, 2014
Off the Beaten Path.
Along the Yockanookany River, Mississippi, 2014
Following the Trace North.
Attala County, Mississippi, 2014
Webster County, Mississippi, 2015
From Whence We Came.
Following Robinson Road, Mississippi, 2014
Stopping for Directions.
Meadow Woods Plantation, Oktibbeha, Mississippi, 2014
Chickasaw County, Mississippi, 2014
Crossing Open Space.
Lee County, Mississippi, 2014
Crossing the Tennessee River, Colbert County, Alabama, 2014
Through the Underbrush.
Along the Old Natchez Trace, southern Tennessee, 2012
Wayne County, Tennessee, 2014
Lawrence County, Tennessee, 2014
Lewis County, Tennessee, 2014
Shelter from the Storm.
Hickman County, Tennessee, 2014
Tennessee Valley Divide.
Williamson County, Tennessee, 2014
Taking to the Hollow.
Davidson County, Tennessee, 2014
Hidden in Plain Sight.
Rose Mont Plantation, Sumner County, Tennessee, 2014
Josephus Conn Guild, a prominent Tennessee attorney and owner of the Rose Mont Plantation, represented twenty-four slaves who were granted manumission in their master’s will, but were denied freedom by the executor of the estate. On January 26, 1846, the Tennessee Supreme Court upheld their right to be free.
A Lesson in Astronomy.
Southern Kentucky, 2014
Fleeing the Torches.
Warren County, Kentucky, 2014
Mammoth Cave, Barren County, Kentucky, 2014
Documents show that “passengers” of the Underground Railroad passed through the cities surrounding Mammoth Cave, including Cave City, Glasgow, and Munfordville, where they could safely cross the Green River. While there is no evidence that the cave itself was used by the Underground Railroad, the most accurate map of the cave system was drawn in the 1842 by Stephen Bishop, a slave and a cave guide who gave tours to travelers. The map was published in 1845 by Morton & Griswold Publishers and was still being utilized as the main source of reference for the cave in 1887.
Following the Green River.
Edmonson County, Kentucky, 2014
Munfordville Presbyterian Church, Munfordville, Kentucky, 2014
Old Man Moon.
Hardin County, Kentucky, 2014
Into the Night.
Spencer County, Kentucky, 2014
Racing the Stars.
Between Oldham and Shelby Counties, Kentucky, 2014
Over the Hills.
North Trimble County, Kentucky, 2014
The River Jordan.
First view of a free state, crossing the Ohio River to Indiana, 2014
The origin of the term “Underground Railroad” is disputed. Abolitionist Rush Sloane offered an account in 1831, stating that the term originated from an episode in which a fugitive slave, Tice Davids, fled across the Ohio River pursued by his owner. Upon reaching the shore, Davids disappeared, leaving the bewildered slaveholder to wonder if Davids had somehow “gone off on an underground road.” (Ohio History Connection. “Tice Davids.” http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/w/Tice_Davids) Another story states that the term came into use among frustrated slave hunters in Pennsylvania, and a third tale, from 1839 in Washington, DC, alleges that a fugitive slave, after being tortured, claimed that he was to have been sent north, where “the railroad ran underground all the way to Boston.” (Robert C. Smedley, History of the Underground Railroad in Chester and the Neighboring Counties of Pennsylvania [Lancaster, Pennsylvania: 1883] quoted in David W. Blight, From Passages to Freedom: The Underground Railroad in History and Memory [Washington, DC: Smithsonian Books in association with the National Underground Railroad Freedom Center, 2004], 3.
Eagle Hollow from Hunter’s Bottom.
Just across the Ohio River, Indiana, 2014
At Eagle Hollow, part of a network of Underground Railroad stations that shepherded slaves northward through Indiana, Chapman Harris—a free man, reverend, and blacksmith—devised an ingenious mode of communication to notify both other agents and slaves on the opposite shore of the Ohio River that he or his sons were about to row their skiff across and all who wanted to accompany them back were welcome. Outside his home at Eagle Hollow, three miles east of Madison, Harris placed an iron plate or anvil in the trunk of a sycamore tree; when the time came to go across the Ohio to pick up fugitives, he would hammer on the anvil. [Madison Courier, January 12, 1880]
Dr. Lott’s House.
Georgetown District of Madison, Indiana, 2013
Some communities were thrust into Underground Railroad work due to proximity. One such area was the city of Madison, Indiana that is situated on the Ohio River, the dividing line between the north and the south, just across from Trimble County, Kentucky. The Georgetown District was a free black community that had a conductors that resided there. One of the most notable of them was George DeBaptiste. He eventually relocated North to Detroit after raids from Kentucky had threatened his life one too many times. Several other routes out of town led from the Ohio River up through Eagle Hollow and Ryker’s Ridge.
Chapman Harris was endangered at least twice during his activities as a pilot. Once, another black, John Simmons, also privy to information about the activities, made the nearly fatal mistake of divulging what he knew. Harris and a fellow black worker, Elijah Anderson, led a group of men who nearly whipped Simmons to death. Apparently the only thing that saved the informer's life was that he bit part of Harris' lip off. On this evidence, a judge of the circuit court in Jefferson County convicted Harris of the beating and fined him several hundred dollars. ["Blacks in and Around Jefferson County," typescript in Jefferson County Library, Madison, Indiana]
Anderson and another black worker, George De Baptiste, were virtually run out of Madison for their work on the Underground Railroad. De Baptiste continued his work in Detroit while Anderson continued his in Toledo, Ohio. Anderson, however, made periodic trips to Kentucky to rescue enslaved blacks. Finally caught and arrested while leading a group of blacks out of Kentucky, Anderson was subsequently sentenced to imprisonment in the Kentucky State Penitentiary at Frankfort where he died, mysteriously. [Madison Courier, June 15, 1874; Elijah Anderson case file, Governor C. S. Morehead Papers, Public Records Division, Frankfort, Kentucky]
Woods on the Way to Wirt.
Jefferson County, Indiana, 2014
Other Underground Railroad communities possessed such moral authority that the network became a defining characteristic of the area. Such was the case with the Central and Eastern routes that ran through Indiana. The Neil’s Creek Anti-slavery Society, of Jefferson County, had quite a few members that were notable stationmasters, including the Reverend Thomas Hicklin and John H. Tibbets, who wrote of his experiences with the Underground Railroad in his reminiscences. The area included a large African American community of free blacks and fugitive slaves called Africa, morally strong whites who adamantly believed that all people were created equal, a school dedicated to educating people of any color as well as various religious organizations.
Dr. Samuel Tibbets was a cofounder and trustee of the Eleutherian College in Lancaster, Indiana, which was one of the earliest educational opportunities for women and African-Americans before the Civil War. He was an abolitionist and president of Neil's Creek Anti-Slavery Society, 1839-1845. His son, John Henry Tibbets, was an Underground Railroad conductor. John's document, The Reminiscences of Slavery Times, is a rare first hand account of his adventures. The Tibbets family brought their underground railroad methods from Clermont County, Ohio, where they cofounded the abolitionist Lindale Baptist Church.
Wade in the Water.
Graham Creek in Jennings County, Indiana, 2013
On the Way to the Hicklin House Station.
San Jacinto, Indiana, 2013
William and Margaret Hicklin acquired 320 acres in Jennings County Indiana on Little Graham Creek in 1819. Their sons Thomas Hicklin, Lewis Hicklin, John L. Hicklin and James Hicklin lived on this land and operated an outstanding Underground Railroad Station. Lewis and Thomas Hicklin became ministers and John and Martha Hicklin were members of Graham Baptist Church and in 1842 donated two acres of land for the church. James Hicklin was dismissed, from this church for "breaking the law and aiding to convey slaves from their masters". Lewis Hicklin was an agent for the Anti-Slavery Society and started Neil's Creek Anti-Slavery Society of Lancaster, Indiana, and many others. The Hicklin Station was located just ten miles north of Eleutherian College in Lancaster, Indiana. There are documented stories in William Seibert Papers about the Hicklin Station and their work in moving freedom seekers north to freedom. Wright Rea, the slave catcher of Madison, Indiana, watched the Hicklin Station very closely to try to catch this family in their successful activities, but was never successful in that effort. William, wife Margaret and son Thomas Hicklin are buried at Home site, the rest of the family moved to Oregon in 1849.
Thomas Hicklin, an active abolitionist in Jennings County, operated a station one half mile east of San Jacinto and piloted blacks to another station on Otter Creek in Campbell Township, and to a station at the home of John Vawter. Instead of continuing on, some fugitives remained in a black settlement southwest of Vernon. ["A Glimpse of Pioneer Life in Jennings County," 137, Alice Ann Bundy Collection, Indiana Division, Indiana State Library; Coffin, Reminiscences, 181-82.]
Follow the Tracks to the First Creek.
Just outside Richland, a free black community, Stone Arch Railroad Bridge, Vernon, Indiana, 2013
Follow the Drinking Gourd.
Jefferson County, Indiana, 2013
Some scholars believe that the signature line in the chorus of “Follow the Drinking Gourd” is not original and attribute it to Lee Hays, who published it eighty years after the end of the Civil War. According to other accounts, however, this chorus was heard as early as the 1840s.
Elias Conwell House.
Along Old Michigan Road, a major north-south artery between Kentucky and Michigan, Napoleon, Indiana, 2013
The Michigan Road ran from Madison to northern Indiana and, once there, the fugitives may have taken the Chicago to Detroit trace to either Illinois or Michigan. Following the Michigan Road from Madison to South Bend or Michigan City, the fugitives and conductors could also have veered off to La Porte, the "door" to the prairie, or to the northeast and Detroit.
Moonrise Over Northern Ripley County.
From the Decatur County line, Indiana, 2013
Passing into Fayette County, Indiana, 2014
Friend or Foe?
Station just outside Metamora, Indiana, 2014
Franklin County, Indiana, 2014
A Brief Respite.
Abolitionist William Beard’s house, Union County, Indiana, 2014
Also from Madison, Indiana, slaves could travel to Brooksburg, Marble Hill, or Vevay, but the next main stop was in Union County at the home of abolitionist William Beard. Beard, of Salem in Union County, was just as active as Levi Coffin in Newport. Beard was so active that the members of the Henry County Female Anti-Slavery Society took up donations to buy 127 yards of free-labor cotton in order to sew garments: vests, coats, pants, dresses, shirts, and socks. Two-thirds of the garments were directed to Salem, Union County, care of William Beard. Apparently Beard forwarded many of the reputed 2,000 slaves Coffin is said to have sent to Canada. From Union County the self-emancipated slaves might go to various points in Decatur, Dearborn, Rush, Henry, and Wayne counties. [Henry County Female Anti-Slavery Society minutes, Indiana Division, Indiana State Library.]
Go to the House on the Hill.
Possible Underground Railroad station, Cambridge City, Indiana, 2013
Look for the Gray Barn Out Back.
Joshua Eliason Jr. barnyards and farmhouse, with a tunnel leading underneath the road to another station, Centerville, Indiana, 2013
The current occupants of the former farmhouse and barn verify the existence of a tunnel connecting the two properties. It was sealed long ago.
A Very Good Road.
Drawing near the Bishop Paul Quinn Station, Richmond, Indiana, 2014
A Safe Place to Regroup.
House of Levi Coffin, who was unofficially dubbed the president of the Underground Railroad, Fountain City (formerly Newport), Indiana, 2014
The Underground Railroad was a loosely organized network whose participants had no titles, but friends and supporters of Levi Coffin—who, with his wife, Catherine, was an important organizer and abolitionist over four decades—referred to him as “president.” And their home became known as "The Grand Central Station of the Underground Railroad."
Many of the Quakers of Indiana came from North Carolina and Tennessee and witnessed first-hand the atrocities of slavery. Including Levi Coffin and other members of his family who settled in and around Newport (now Fountain City), Indiana. They formed an Anti-Slavery Society and were regular contributors to the newspaper The Free Labor Advocate which championed immediate emancipation of all slaves, as well as only purchasing goods and produce that did not involve slave labor. Levi and Catharine Coffin were adamant supporters of the Underground Railroad while in Indiana and continued to support it after their move to Cincinnati, Ohio. The Levi Coffin Home is a National Historic Landmark and is now a part of the Levi Coffin Indiana State Museum Historic Site.
Levi and Catharine Coffin were Quakers from North Carolina who opposed slavery and became very active with the Underground Railroad in Indiana. During the 20 years they lived in Newport, they worked to provide transportation, shelter, food and clothing for hundreds of freedom seekers. Many of their stories are told in Levi Coffin’s 1876 memoir, Reminiscences.
Their eight-room house was the third home of Levi and Catharine Coffin in Newport, and it was a safe haven for hundreds of fugitive slaves on their journey to Canada. Levi and Catharine Coffin’s home became known as “The Grand Central Station of the Underground Railroad.” The Coffins and others who worked on this special “railroad” were defying federal laws of the time.
From the outside it looks like a normal, beautifully-restored, Federal-style brick home built in 1839. Being a Quaker home, the Coffin house would not have had many of the era’s decorative features such as narrow columns, delicate beading or dentil trim. On the inside, however, it has some unusual features that served an important purpose in American history. Most rooms in the home have at least two ways out, there is a spring-fed well in the basement for easy access to water, plenty of room upstairs allowed for extra visitors, and large attic and storage garrets on the side of the rear room made for convenient hiding places. The location of the house, on Highway 27 at the center of an abolitionist Quaker community, allowed the entire community to act as lookouts for the Coffins and give them plenty of warning when bounty hunters came into town.
For their journey north, freedom seekers often used three main routes to cross from slavery to freedom — through Madison or Jeffersonville in Indiana, or Cincinnati, OH. From these points, slaves traveled to Newport through the Underground Railroad. The Coffins’ “station” was so successful that every slave who passed through eventually reached freedom.
Approaching the Seminary.
Near Spartanburg, Indiana, 2014
Union Literary Institute was one of the first schools to offer higher education without regard to color or sex before the Civil War. It was established in 1846 by a biracial board, including free blacks from nearby settlements. At the time, Indiana laws did not allow blacks to attend the public schools. Students labored four hours a day in exchange for room and board.
The school was supported by local and national donations, including land. Ebenezer Tucker was the first teacher, and notable attendees included Hiram Revels, the first black U.S. Senator, and James S. Hinton, the first black elected to the Indiana House of Representatives. In 1860 a two-story brick structure was built. The school was a noted Underground Railroad stop.
Taking Cover with the Fireflies.
North of Winchester, Indiana, 2014
On the Safest Route.
James and Rachel Sillivan cabin, Pennville (formerly Camden), Indiana, 2014
Several documents from the mid-1800s to the present indicate that Eliza Harris stayed at this location during her flight northward. Her crossing of the Ohio River would become one of the best known escapes due to her representation in Harriet Beecher Stowe’s 1852 novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin.
Adams County, Indiana, 2014
Walk Along the Ridge.
Between the Maumee and St. Joseph Rivers, Braun-Leslie House, Fort Wayne, Indiana, 2014
Wayne County had many contributors to the Underground Railroad effort. Apparently by the 1850s Wayne County conductors and agents formed a Society of Underground Railroad workers, with a membership pledge and code. From Richmond, but mainly from Newport, conductors took fugitives through Randolph and Jay counties to points east and west. In the east, splinter lines ran through Winchester, Marion, and Bluffton to Fort Wayne, then to Toledo, Ohio, and on to Canada. An alternative route was through Winchester, Marion, the Wabash-Huntington area, and Logansport. Addison Coffin, a transporter on the "line," wrote in 1844, "The Wabash line was in good running order and passengers very frequent." [Underground Railroad pledge with signature of J. Pease, Thomas Marshall Collection, Indiana Historical Society Library and Addison Coffin, Life and Travels of Addison Coffin (Cleveland, 1897), 88-89]
William Cornell House, outside Auburn, Indiana, 2014
Queen Anne’s Lace.
South Steuben County, Indiana, 2014
Bird’s Eye View.
Erastus Farnham House, south of Fremont, Indiana, 2014
Outside Coldwater, Michigan, 2014
Concealed in the Fog.
Near Jonesville, Michigan, 2014
Nearing the Farm.
Royal Watkins farmstead, Jackson County, Michigan, 2014
“Liberty to the Fugitive Captive.”
Waiting for the all-clear to head to the Captain John Lowry Station, Lodi Plains Cemetery, Nutting’s Corner, Michigan, 2014
Sylvia and Captain John Lowry boldly invited freedom seekers to their home via a large board sign that was above the gate to their yard. It was painted with two figures, one white and the other black, holding a scroll between them. Their daughter, Mary E., described the sign: “The figure at the right is a female form, with heavy chain in the left hand, but broken are the links. In her right hand she holds the balances. To the left, and in the act of rising, is the figure of a man of darker hue … but, clad in freeman’s garb; while around one wrist is clasped the other end of slavery’s chain, with many missing links, and to his sister he looks up for help and perfect freedom, their faces all aglow with triumph, and just below appears this motto: ‘liberty to the fugitive captive and the oppressed over all the earth, both male and female of all colors.’” Carol E. Mull, The Underground Railroad in Michigan (Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Co., Publishers, 2010), 94.
Moon Over the “Old Slave House.”
Reverend Guy Beckley’s home north of the Huron River, Lower Town, Michigan, 2014
Arthur and Nathan Power Station, Quakertown, Michigan, 2014
Wait for the Call of the Hoot Owl.
Oakland County, Michigan, 2014
The Beacon Tree.
Spring Hill Farm, Macomb County, Michigan, 2014
A composite of photographs from two different locations, this image represents a memory described by Liberetta, the daughter of Peter and Sarah Lerich. As a five-year-old, Liberetta witnessed her parents and their neighbors John Narramoor, John Waters, and Mr. and Mrs. Fuller uprooting a massive cedar and pulling the tree—with three yoke of oxen—to the top of a hill, where they replanted it. Gathering near the tree, the group prayed for their “black brethren” and the “down-trodden race” and sprinkled newspaper clippings of the National Era on the cedar’s roots. Mrs. Narramoor soon arrived, announcing that the tree was visible a mile away.
A Place of Rest.
Rufus Nutting House, Romeo, Michigan, 2014
Leaving Reverend Oren Cook Thompson Station, St. Clair County,
Crossing the St. Clair River to Canada just south of Port Huron, Michigan, 2014
Canadian soil, Sarnia, Ontario, 2014
By the 1850's there were six 'firmly rooted' black communities in Ontario, Canada. These communities served as havens for fugitive slaves prior to the Civil War.
1. Central Ontario (London, Queen's Bush, Brantford, Wilberforce)
2. Chatham (Dawn, Elgin)
3. Detroit Frontier (Amherstburgh, Sandwich, Windsor)
4. Niagara Peninsula (St. Catharine's, Niagara Falls, Newark, Fort Erie)
5. Northern Simcoe & Grey Counties (Oro, Collingwood, Owen Sound)
6. Urban Centers on Lake Ontario (Hamilton, Toronto)
Buxton (Elgin) Settlement 1849, now the Buxton National Historic Site & Museum- The Elgin Settlement, also known as Buxton, was one of four organized black settlements to be developed in Canada. The black population of Canada West and Chatham was already high due to the area's proximity to the United States. The land was purchased by the Elgin Association through the Presbyterian Synod for creating a settlement. The land lay twelve miles south of Chatham. The Reverend William King believed that blacks could function successfully in a working society if given the same educational opportunities as white children. "Blacks are intellectually capable of absorbing classical and abstract matters.” Being a reverend and teacher, the building of a school and church in the settlement was a necessity to him. The settlement also was home to the logging industry. George Brown, who later became one of the Fathers of Confederation, was a supporter of William King and helped build the settlement.
Frederick Douglass, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass (New York: Dover Publications, 1995), 9.
Frederick Douglass and David W. Blight, My Bondage and My Freedom (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2014), 226.
Eber M. Pettit, Sketches in the History of the Underground Railroad (Westfield, NY: Chautauqua Region Press, 1999), 31.
“Run, Mary, Run” in James Weldon Johnson, J. Rosamond Johnson, and Lawrence Brown, The Books of American Negro Spirituals (New York: Da Capo Press, 2003), 110.
Federal Writers’ Project, Tennessee Slave Narratives: A Folk History of Slavery in Tennessee from Interviews with Former Slaves (Washington, DC: Library of Congress, 2006), cover.
Douglass, My Bondage and My Freedom, 41.
Jacob Cummings, “Interview with Reverend Jacob Cummings, an Escaped Slave Living in Columbus, Ohio” in The Underground Railroad in Indiana, vol. 1, ed. Wilbur H. Siebert, Wilbur H. Siebert Collection, Ohio Historical Society.
Pettit, Sketches in the History of the Underground Railroad, 128.
David W. Blight, A Slave No More: Two Men Who Escaped to Freedom: Including Their Own Narratives of Emancipation (Boston: Mariner Books, 2007), 243.
Frederick Douglass, The Life and Times of Frederick Douglass (Mineola, NY: Dover Publications, 2003), 109.
Pettit, Sketches in the History of the Underground Railroad, 118.
Pettit, Sketches in the History of the Underground Railroad, 96.
Pettit, Sketches in the History of the Underground Railroad, 114.
Sarah Bradford, Harriet, the Moses of Her People (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2012), 17–18.
John H. Tibbets, Reminiscences of Slavery Times, unpublished chronicle, 1888, collection of Eluetherian College, Inc., Lancaster, Indiana.
Bordewich, Bound for Canaan, 64.
Union Literary Institute Minutes Book, 1845–1890, Indiana Historical Society, BV1972, 18.
Tibbets, Reminiscences of Slavery Times.
Carol E. Mull, The Underground Railroad in Michigan (Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Co., Publishers, 2010), 94.
William Craft, Running a Thousand Miles for Freedom; or, The Escape of William and Ellen Craft from Slavery (London: Aeterna Publishing, 2010), i.
National Park Service, US Department of the Interior, Underground Railroad (Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 2005), 44.